THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS <p>The Journal of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (JMMG) will covers the latest developments in the field of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics encompassing the broad spectrum research areas including environmental microbiology, agricultural microbiology, food microbiology, medical microbiology, cancer biology, immunology, human genetics, microbial byproducts, microbial biofilms, microbial bioengineering, human genetics, molecular genetics. The journal explore the significance and interrelationships of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria, microalgae, archaea and higher eukaryotes with the advancements in the aforementioned fields. It is an open-access, multidisciplinary, double-blinded, peer-reviewed journal that publishes manuscripts across the entire spectrum of microbiology and molecular genetics.<br />JMMG will provide a multidisciplinary forum for the articles related to basic microbiology, molecular, medical and applied research. Journal of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics is a quarterly journal that publishes original research which is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The novel and significant research will be considered for this journal.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong><br /><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong><br />Vice Chancellor<br />The Women University Multan , Pakistan<br /><strong>Email:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR IN CHIEF </strong><br /><strong>Dr. Atia Iqbal</strong><br />Associate Professor<br />Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics<br />The Women University Multan, Pakistan</p> en-US (Dr. Atia Iqbal) (Mr. Asghar Ali) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 12:16:45 +0000 OJS 60 EVALUATION OF FEAR TOWARDS OMICRON VARIANT OF COVID-19 AMONG THE POPULATION OF SOUTH PUNJAB, PAKISTAN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY <p>A new COVID-19 variant B.1.1.529 named Omicron induced a swift increase in COVID-19 cases across the world. Omicron variant-associated cases had a substantial impact on people's mental health. A cross-sectional social media-based survey was conducted (13-December-2021 to 25-Dec-2021) after the first case of Omicron variant has been reported in Pakistan. A designed questionnaire was used to gather data. The first part of the questionnaire contained demographic characteristics and second section comprised seven questions regarding fear toward the Omicron variant of COVID-19. Statistical analysis was performed by Graph Pad Prism version VII and MS-Excel. A total of 375 people were engaged in this survey. About 98.9% of participants had heard about the Omicron variant. Social media was found as the enormous source of Omicron variant information. The fear score was collectively high about 84.5%. Partakers who belong to urban areas had a significantly high fear score than the people who live in rural areas. Participants aged 21 - 40 had remarkably greater fear scores than other ages especially among healthcare workers in comparison with non-healthcare workers. Females were found eminently on a high fear level as compared to men. On an educational basis, post-graduates partakers had significantly high fear scores than the other graduates and high school/diploma holder participants. The current study provides a compact screening of the fear among the people of south Punjab Pakistan towards the Omicron variant of COVID-19. There is a need for development of strategies to overcome the fear by imparting new policies and awareness programs.</p> Hubza Ruatt Khan, Romah Ishfaq, Asghar Javaid, Mehvish Javeed, Aiman Shahzadi, Rabia Sultan Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PREVALENCE OF VIRULENCE GENES IN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF PSEUDOMONAS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY <p><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> is a gram negative rod shaped and opportunistic bacterium that causes Opportunistic infections with help of potential virulence factors in immunosuppressed patients. Exotoxin A and exoenzyme S, catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to plasma proteins in eukaryotic host cells. Exotoxin A has major role in <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> that causes toxicity by inhibition of protein synthesis while Exo S is involved in invasion, colonization and dissemination of infections. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between virulence genes of <em>Pseudomonas</em> (exotoxin A and exoenzyme S) with antibiotic resistance patterns. This research was done in Microbiology Laboratory of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, during October to December, 2021. Total 11,187 clinical samples were processed at culture and sensitivity bench in this tenure and 100 isolates of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>were isolated on basis of morphological characters and standard biochemical procedures in microbiology laboratory. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) was used for testing&nbsp; &nbsp;Antibiotic Susceptibility. The toxA and exoS genes were detected in 100 clinical isolates by PCR technique. The correlation was used for finding the association between detected genes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa. </em>In antibiotic susceptibility pattern Gentamicin was most common resistant drug and Polymixin B and Colistin were most effective drugs with 100% sensitivity. Prevalence of toxA+ and exoS+ strains was 95% and 87%, respectively. Correlation was used to find association between genes and drug resistance pattern and there was no significant association P value &lt;0.5. High frequency of toxA+ and exoS+ strains isolated from all type of clinical specimens suggest these genes are also possible cause of resistance of drugs but negative association between them highlights that there are some other factors other than these genes which need to be focused in future studies to come over drug resistivity of <em>Pseudomonas&nbsp; aeruginosa</em>. &nbsp;</p> Sumaira Mazhar, Abdul Rehman Saleem, Abdul Basit Malik, Adnan Yaseen Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CANCER MECHANISM, MOLECULAR TARGETS AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC PHYTOCHEMICALS; A REVIEW <p>The uncontrolled proliferation of cells leads to cellular accumulation, structural transformation and genetic instabilities ultimately result in the formation of malignant cells. Present day clinical manifestations for cancer management have several adverse effects including limited bioavailability, non-specificity, toxic effect on other cells or tissue. These therapies involve chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery of tumours and radiotherapy and stem cell therapy. By exploring Chemotheapeutic potential of medicinal plants search for new, novel drug candidates can be explored from the thousands of year’s successful traditional medicinal system verified by the present day, advanced modern research techniques and technology. This would be beneficial for sustainable, conservable, natural resource that can result in cost management, drug production enhancement and medicine provision or excess to the suffering population.</p> Sana Riaz, Naaz Abbas, Sania Mazhar, Ishrat Perveen, Saira Ashfaq, Ramsha Essa, Yasar Saleem, Quratulain Syed, Syed Hussain Abidi Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ASA-GSH ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM OF SEA-ISLAND COTTON IN RESPONSE TO VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE <p>Sea-Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is a high-quality long-fiber cotton species and is mainly planted in southern region of Xinjiang. The primary disease is Verticillium wilt, which is caused by Verticillium dahlia affecting G. barbadense growth and development. That leads to reduction in quality and yield of the fibers and thus to the huge economic loss. AsA-GSH antioxidant system has been extensively studied and is seen as having a crucial function in plant’s response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The goal of this study is to look into the resistant mechanism of AsA-GSH antioxidant system in Gossypiumbarbadense in response to V. dahliae. The two varieties, wilt-susceptible XH17 and wilt-resistant XH24, were incubated by V991 strain of V. dahliae and the treated leaves were collected for the physiological and biochemical analysis of AsA-GSH antioxidant system. The leaves were collected at day 0, 2, 6 and 9 after fungal inoculation and the functions of related enzymes of AsA-GSH antioxidant system including Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione re-oxidase (GR), as well as the physiological indexes of malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the genes of APX, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), SOD, CAT, and GR, that constitute AsA-GSH antioxidant system, were analyzed by the transcriptomic and proteomic data. The enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GR, and APX were found to be increased significantly after V. dahliae treatment in both XH24 and XH17. Interestingly, SOD and APX activities maintained at relative high values in wilt-resistant XH24 but a decrease in values was observed during the late stage of V. dahliae treatment in case of wilt-susceptible XH17. High proline accumulation and low MDA content were observed in wilt-resistant XH24. The results of AsA-GSH antioxidant system genes shows that four APX members of GbAPX1A, GbAPX1D, GbAPX10D, and GbAPX12A, one DHAR member GbDHAR2D, four MDHAR members of GbMDHAR1A, GbMDHAR1D, GbMDHAR3A, and GbMDHAR3D, two GR members of GbGR2A and GbGR2D, two CAT members of GbCAT1A and GbCAT1D, and six SOD members of GbCSD4A, GbCSD5A, GbCSD4D, GbCSD5D, GbMSD1D and GbMSD1A were all expressed induced accumulations significantly after V. dahliae treatment, implying their important potential functions for G. barbadense to resist V. dahliae. Generally, the protein expression and mRNA expression indicated a similar profile, while some unique expressions of these AsA-GSH antioxidant system genes were also been discovered. There were ten APX members of GbAPX1D, GbAPX2A, GbAPX2D, GbAPX3A, GbAPX3D, GbAPX6A, GbAPX6D, GbAPX8A, GbAPX12A, and GbAPX3D; all six DHAR members with the exception of GbDHAR2D; three GR members locating in A sub-genome containing GbGR 1A, GbGR 2A, and GbGR 3A; six MDAHR members including GbMDAHR1A, GbMDAHR1D, GbMDAHR3A, GbMDAHR3D, GbMDAHR4A, and GbMDAHR4D; two CAT members of GbCAT1A and GbCAT4D; as well as eight SOD members of GbCSD1A, GbCSD4A, GbCSD4D, GbCSD2A, GbMSD2D, GbMSD2D, GbMSD1A and GbMSD1D, to indicate steady high expressions. These results indicated that there exist some close link and consistency between the mRNA and protein expressions, and that the preferentially expressed proteins of AsA-GSH antioxidant system might perform important functions as enzymes to catalyze the oxidation/reduction reactions and thus to maintain the redox balance and integrity of the cells in the process of G. barbadense plants to resist V. dahliae.</p> Amjad Ali, Li Hongbin, Li Rong, Sara Zahid, Nasir Uddin, Anis Safir, Tariq Masood, Waqas Safir Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS ON ANEMIC PREGNANT WOMEN <p>Iron is the most important component and its deficiency causes anemia that can be very dangerous for pregnant women as well as the fetus. The study was designed to identify level of anemia in pregnant women to find out the causes of anemia and to evaluate the effect of iron supplements on anemia during pregnancy<strong>. </strong>Study was conducted in district Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan for a period 6 months on antenatal women. 50 pregnant women of the 2<sup>nd</sup> trimester were selected for study, detailed history and questionnaire regarding socio demographic characteristics were conducted before study. Iron supplements were prescribed to the antenatal enrolled women after 1<sup>st </sup>hematological incidences. Mostly women prescribed with iron supplements that contain the equivalent of 60 mg iron and 250 µg folic acid. A blood sample was collected before and after the study (9<sup>th</sup> month&nbsp; &nbsp;of pregnancy). Patients received the iron supplementation for six months from 2nd trimester to onward then CBC results compared between before and after supplementation, which show significant difference between two values that show that iron supplements have considerable effect on anemia. Diet plays an important role in the maintenance of good health during pregnancy. The effect can be enhanced by taking iron supplements properly.</p> Mahjabeen Anwar, Sajida Munir Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CHIKUNGUNYA OUTBREAK IN PAKISTAN; OPTIMAL CONTROL, AND MANAGEMENT PREVENTION <p>In recent decades, climatic changes have led to extreme weather events andprimarily influenced human health by outbreaks of epidemics and infectious disease. Asian countries including Pakistan is fundamentally effected by these substantial climate changes earthquake in 2005 and mega floods in 2010, affected over 20 million people following acute diarrhea, skin diseases and suspected malaria being the most common (Patz et al., 1996).These extreme climatic changes are precursors that triggers natural disasters and infectious disease recent outbreaks including malaria, dengue and chikungunya.</p> Ahmad Riaz, Tariq Javed Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO EXPLORE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COVID-19 VACCINATION AND CHANGES IN MENSTRUAL CYCLE OF YOUNG FEMALES IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN <p>Although public concern about COVID-19 vaccinations causing menstrual cycle disruptions is growing, there is presently insufficient research to assess the impact of immunization on menstrual health. The present study enrolled 455 young females and effect of COVID 19 immunization on normal menstruation and minor post-vaccine side effects were observed. This study was held through online google forms which were circulated in different universities of Lahore. The majority of participants (81%) were in the 18–23 age group, and (58%) of them were at their ideal weight. Sinopharm was the most prominent administrative vaccine (54%). In this region, the least frequent use of administrative vaccine was AstraZeneca (2%). Majority of females (74%) had mild post-vaccination symptoms. Irregular menstrual cycle was noted in 23% of females while 17% were unsure whether this irregularity was brought on by the Covid-19 vaccine or by some other medical condition. Unusual cramps were reported by 42% of females, while early onset with menstrual bleeding and delayed period with minimal flow were reported by 28% and 18% of females, respectively.</p> Muhammad Nouman, Shamaila Habib, Faiza Usman, Sajida Munir Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CRISPR/CAS9 IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM (COTTON) COKER 312 FOR CLCUD COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE RESISTANCE MEDIATED BY AGROBACTERIUM <p>The cotton crop is the largest contributor in the world-wide economy. On the other hand, Gemini-virus is the biggest enemy of the cotton crop, causing CLCuVs infection in the African and Asian regions. It destroys the GDP rate to an alarming point. As biotechnology is serving mankind by introducing many conventional techniques like; specific RNA editing and plant breeding and advance techniques like; ZFNs, CRISPR/Cas9, and TALENs. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>To produce disease-resistant Coker 312 Cotton a CRISPR/Cas9 technique was used due to its site-specific targeting and efficiency. The targeted Rep and ?C1gene play role in CLCuVs replication. An expression vector pHSE-401 containing Cas9 and multiple guided RNAs was cloned. The vector was transformed by excision of hypocotyls of cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum)</em>&nbsp;type Coker 312 plants and infection delivery was mediated by EHA-105 Strain agrobacterium. The hypocotyls were grown on MSB regeneration media containing specific antibiotics. Then calluses were cultured in culture media and were planted into soil containing pots and kept under continuous observation. At different growth periods, no symptom of CLCuD was observed in the transgenic plants after 30 days of the growth period. The RNA was extracted at different growth periods and confirmed by PCR. The PCR products were visualized by running it on gel electrophoresis 0.8kb single guide RNA (sgRNA) bands confirmed the CRISPR/Cas9 in cotton Coker 312. Plants containing pHSE-401vector showed fewer virus traits and delay in disease development in 30 days growth period. This proposed project exhibits the desired results with a successful gene editing. &nbsp;</p> Tahira Shafique, Javeria Shafique, Azka Shafique, Saiqa Shafique, Mariam Shahid, Nasir Uddin, Anis Safir, Peerzada Fawad Ullah Jan, Waqas Safir Copyright (c) 2022 THE JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 TRENDING KILLERS OF PLANTS; AN OVERVIEW OF THE MOST PREVAILING PATHOGENIC FUNGI <p>Agriculture is crucial for all of humanity and will continue to play a significant role in ensuring the continued food security of the world's expanding population. There are several illnesses that may affect plants, especially crop plants, which can result in significant reductions in production. Plants, and especially crop plants, are particularly susceptible to these diseases. The lessons learned from history show that illnesses of this kind not only harmed agricultural output but also had a negative impact on the economy. The majority of the losses may be attributed to fungal infections. Such fungal infections are imposing a continous<br>threat to the sustainability of plants gobally. These phytopathogens show great persistance in causing plant diseases and quality degradation. Pathogenic fungi employ a variety of techniques to colonies plants and infect them with illness. Necrotrophic fungi destroy their hosts and consume their remains, whereas other fungi invade live cells (biotrophs). Pathogenic growth is strictly controlled, and specific infection components are created, for the full invasion of vegetative organs. Fungal infections use a wide range of virulence determinants to further colonies hosts and spread illness. The roles that virulence variables play vary depending on the infection approach. Necrotrophic pathogens produce poisons that damage plant tissue, although most pathogens obstruct the main plant defense. Contrarily, biotrophs use effector chemicals to prevent plant cell damage and change the metabolism of plants in the pathogen's benefit.</p> Ali Raza, Muhammad Hairs, Aamir Riaz, Rumesha Rafiq, Memoona Basharat, Muqaddas Shaheen, Sumaira Goshi, Sabahat Asghar, Ali Khan, Zia Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CITRUS LIMETTA (PEEL, STEM AND LEAVES) <p>Citrus limetta plant has potent activities against different infectious diseases and globally consumed citrus fruit. Studies revealed this plant has several chemical constituents that are known to have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties. This plant is a best source to boost immunity and fight against infections and common flu and cold. The plant Citrus limetta (leaves, peel, stem) used in this research were collected from various areas of Pakpattan (Green Town) and ethanolic extract was prepared as per standard protocols. Gram-positive bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Gram-negative bacteria i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosae (ATCC 27853) and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 33152) were used to check the anti bacterial activities. Both Disc diffusion and well diffusion methods were used for the anti-bacterial pursuits. The cytotoxic pursuit of plant abstraction was set on using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dipenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis. Antioxidant activities were analyzed by performing a DPHH test. Different tests have been performed including the Molisch experiment, Ninhydrin experiment, alkaline reagent experiment, Wagner’s experiment, Froth experiment, Ferric reagent experiment and Salkowski experiment for the detection of phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic abstrac of Citrus limetta (leaves, peel and stem) tested by agar diffusion opposed to various bacterial ATCC cultures<br>which reveal topmost zone of hindrance against Enterococcus Faecalis (24 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (34 mm), whereas the minimal sector of hindrance was shown by Bacillus subtilis (14 mm) after 24 and 48t hours of incubation at 37°C. The antioxidant activity results showed that it reduced the firm radical 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to yellow-tint DPPH-H outstretched 75.81% of DPPH rummage effect at its 100% attentiveness compared to vitamin c as testimonial standard being a secure antioxidant indicator. Cytotoxic activities of this plant revealed extraordinary viability of cells which is a novel property examined of this plant. Ethanolic extracts showed positive results against different test performed to check the phytochemical constituents. It was concluded that Citrus limetta ethanolic extract of (leaves peel and stem) possessed a potent antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity and the presence of phytochemical constituents of the plant make it an essential parameter in treatment of different pathological conditions.</p> Amna Mahmood, Nida Naeem, Lahrasb Khan, Rabia Mahmood, Jawan Bakht Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DRUG REPURPOSING: IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL DRUG TARGETS AGAINST NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEIN 1 (NSP-1) OF SARS-COV-2 THROUGH MOLECULAR DOCKING AND MOLECULAR DYNAMIC SIMULATION USING FDA APPROVED DRUGS <p>Since its pandemic in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has badly affected the countries around the globe. There is no FDA approved drug for the treatment of the disease. In this study, we evaluated potential targets against non-structural protein-1 (Nsp-1), which is crucial in disturbing host-translational machinery. As the complete<br>crystal structure of the Nsp-1 was not available, we used I-TASSER for making the complete structure of the protein. The structure was verified using ERRAT<br>and PROVEAN. As the previous studies had reported different binding sites for this protein, we used blind docking of Nsp-1 with 2225 FDA approved drugs<br>using AutoDock Vina. Based upon the residue interactions obtained from the blind docking, we selected C-terminal of Nsp-1 for specific docking against FDA<br>approved drugs. Based upon the docking results, Glycyrrhizin was found to be suitable drug showing strong interactions. We further verified the glycyrrhizin-<br>Nsp-1 complex by analyzing the trajectory for 60 ns, by comparing with individual protein. RMSD analysis during the trajectory and RMSF analysis also<br>suggested the stability of the protein-ligand complex and resulted in 49 hydrogen bonds during the simulation process. The study suggests that Glycyrrhizin can act as potential inhibitors against Nsp-1 of SARS-COV-2.</p> Rana Muhammad Mateen, Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Mureed Hussain, Muhammad Irfan Fareed, Muhammad Sohail Afzaal, Rukhsana Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING BACTERIA FROM DIFFERENT RHIZOSPHERIC SOILS <p>The production of indole acetic acid (IAA) is a significant property of rhizospheric bacteria to stimulate and promote plant growth. In this investigation, indole acetic acid-producing bacteria from the rhizosphere of five distinct plants (Wheat, Gulchen, Rose, Lady Finger, and Bouginvella) were isolated and characterized. Bacterial strains were isolated and identified by morphological characterization. Out of 30 bacterial isolates, 5 isolates were selected as efficient producers of Indole acetic acid. These selected bacterial isolates were subjected to several biochemical tests for identification at the genus level. After the determination of bacterial genus, antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to check the resistance pattern of each bacterial isolate against antibiotics. Selected bacterial isolates were characterized by using molecular techniques. DNA of five bacterial isolates was extracted by WizPrepTMg DNA mini kit and amplification of 16S rRNA gene was done by PCR. Amplification of PCR product was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. From biochemical tests, Klebsiella spp., E. coli, and Bacillus sp. tested positive. Klebsiella spp. showed 87, 88, 81, 88, 91, 100, 90, and 87% resistance against enrofloxacin, gentamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, chlotetracyclin, tylosine, oxytetracycline, and amoxicillin, respectively. E. coli showed 80, 88, 79, 84, 79, 86, 82, and 89% against enrofloxacin, gentamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, chlotetracyclin, tylosine, oxytetracycline, and amoxicillin respectively whereas 87, 91, 100, 100, 93, 100, 89 and 100% resistance was shown by Bacillus sp. against enrofloxacin, gentamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, chlotetracyclin, tylosine, oxytetracycline, and amoxicillin, respectively. All these selected bacterial isolates were found positive for the 16S rRNA gene and characterized as Klebsiella pneumonia RY6, Klebsiella oxytoca strain RY8, Klebsiella oxytoca RY10, Escherichia coli RY20, and Bacillus tequilensis RY23. It is concluded that the property of synthesizing IAA is considered an effective tool for the isolation and characterization of bacteria that have a role in promoting plant growth.</p> Rimsha Yasin, Sunbul Rasheed, Mohsin Tassawar Cheema, Aatif Amin Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ROLE OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-?ETA (TNF-?) IN GASTRIC CANCER: SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ANALYSIS-AN IN-SILICO STUDY <p>Tumor necrosis factor-beta is also called lymphotoxin-alpha. The objective of this study was to identify non-synonymous SNPs of TNF-beta and their association with gastric cancer using computational analysis. For this purpose, different online tools like SIFT, Polyphen, Polyphen-2, fuNTRp, SNAP2 (to identify pathogenic SNPs), SNP&amp;GO, PhD-SNP, PredictSNP, MAPP, SNAP, MetaSNP, PANTHER (disease associated SNPs), Mu-Pro, I-Mutant, and CONSURF (to check protein stability) were used. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) were detected by Musitedeep, Protein secondary structure by SOPMA, and Protein to protein interaction by STRING. Three SNPs having rsIDs (rs1325992410, rs1290487566, and rs769344065) showing mutations on Y110C, G117E, and G170R, respectively found to be completely deleterious. The PTMs found were phosphorylation at amino acid number 2 and 128; palmitoylation at number 13; pyrrolidone carboxylic acid at number 33 and glycosylation at number 41 and 46. The protein secondary structure consisted of alpha helix (18.54%), extended strand (29.27%), beta turn as 6.83% and random coil (45.37%). Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that it has strong interaction with Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase (MAP3K14). Based on these results, it is concluded that these three SNPs found in TNF-B are involved in gastric cancer.</p> Asif Bilal, Sibtain Ahmad, Fakhr Un Nisa, Furqan Ali, Kainat Ramzan, Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Saleem Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT WITH OBESITY AND HYPERURICEMIA <p>The level of uric acid level in blood is maintained by hepatic production and renal excretion. Hyperuricemia is caused by a decrease in urate excretion. Many<br>conditions like obesity, high cholesterol, and insulin resistance are disorders of the metabolic syndrome that are related to hyperuricemia. It occurs due to an increase in production and decrease in its excretion of urea due to renal failure which leads to further complications. The aim of study was to correlate the body weight with hyperuricemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2021 to March 2022. The total number of collected samples were 272 from patients visiting Umer Clinical Lab, Kot Adu, Pakistan and subjected for uric acid results under Microlab 300 in laboratory. Body Mass Index was calculated by measuring the weight and height. Total 272 individuals were included in this study among them, 131 (48%) were female and 141 (52%) were male. Body mass index of 272 individuals involved in this study was calculated. Out of 272 individuals, 4.04% were underweight, 32.72% were normal, 33.82% were overweight and 29.41% were obese. Serum uric acid levels were measured in 131 females and out of them 3.82% had hypouricemia, 85.50% had normal uric acid level and 10.69% had hyperuricemia. The serum uric acid levels in 141 males were measured and out of 141 males, 10.64% had hypouricemia, 82.98% had normal uric acid levels and 6.38% had hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia in age group 41 to 60 years of both male and female were 2.84% and 6.11%, respectively. Serum uric acid levels were elevated in overweight and obese patients as compared to those who had normal weight and underweight. The majority of the participants of the study had normal weight. However, uric levels were independently associated with gender.</p> Wajid Hussain, Muhammad Maaz Faheem, Rameez Ahmed, Muhammad Murad Farid, Iqra Munir Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY AND EXTRA PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN PUNJAB POPULATION OF PAKISTAN <p>Tuberculosis, being one of the top 10 death causing diseases worldwide, is still widespread in developing countries. Pakistan is currently ranked fifth among the high tuberculosis burden countries and 5 % of the total patients worldwide are from this country. The study was conducted on 633 tuberculosis patients involving both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis from Punjab population of Pakistan. Male to female ratio was found to be 0.96 in this population. Most of the individuals infected from this disease were found to be of age group 15-34 where 38.38% males and 46.43% females were infected. Among pulmonary tuberculosis, age group &lt;15 was most infected with 31.11% males and 39.84% females while among extra pulmonary tuberculosis age group 15-34 was found most infected with 51.53% males and 56.31% females. Significant difference in MFR and age groups prevalence of this disease was noted when compares with neighbor countries India and Iran.</p> Muhammad Khurram, Rana Muhammad Mateen, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Irfan Fareed, Muhammad Ali, Imran Tipu, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Rukhsana Parveen, Mureed Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000