Endocrinal Association of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis with Obesity
Keywords:HPA axis, obesity, neuropeptide Y, glucocorticoid, insulin, leptin
Obesity is a serious health condition that has been affecting individuals of all ages worldwide.
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and chronic stress exposure are implicated as main contributing factors for obesity development. This study is a systematic review of the research, based on all possible pathways that are involved in obesity involving HPA. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are involved in the interaction of HPA activity and energy intake. Neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulate the feeding behavior. Insulin and leptin levels also affect the HPA axis through different pathways and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of obesity. This review shows the relationship of the HPA axis with obesity. By decreasing the activation or by inhibition of different pathways the causes of obesity can be controlled. Recent therapies are being developed to decrease food intake and body weight regulations.