Retrospective Analysis of Tuberculosis Epidemiology in Okara, Pakistan


  • Muhammad Zeeshan Ali Department of Microbiology & Molecular genetics University of Okara
  • Ali Raza Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Okara
  • Talha Javed Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan.
  • Habib Ullah Tahir Department of Microbiology & Molecular genetics University of Okara.
  • Anam Tanveer Department of Allied Health Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad.
  • Muhammad Sharjeel Rawal Liaquat National Hospital & Medical College Lahore.
  • Sumera Sabir Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad
  • Muhammad Adeel Adil Department of Microbiology. Cholistan University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur
  • Momena Habib Department of Microbiology & Molecular genetics University of Okara
  • Virdah Ijaz Department of Microbiology & Molecular genetics University of Okara
  • Hafiz Muhammad Iftekhar Medi Test Laboratory, Okara.
  • Hafiza Aqeela Iftikhar Department of Natural Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom.



Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Sputum smear Microscopy; Okara.


Tuberculosis, commonly called T.B., is a persistent bacterial illness attributed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (T.B.) is a prevalent infectious disease that results in millions of deaths each year, particularly in low-income countries. A retrospective study was conducted between December 1, 2022, and April 30, 2023. Sputum smear microscopy was performed on all individuals suspected of having the T.B. condition. Out of the entire pool of 711 cases under suspicion, 227 cases, which accounts for 31.93% of the total, were confirmed positive for Tuberculosis. The male population is more susceptible to T.B. infection than their female counterparts, with a distribution of 59.47% and 40.53%, respectively. The age group of 30-44 years exhibited the highest rate of pulmonary tuberculosis cases at 24.67%, whereas the age group of 60-74 years recorded the highest percentage of cases at 25.56%. Based on our research, it was determined that the incidence of Tuberculosis exhibited a statistically significant increase within the overall populace of Okara District. The objective of the present study was to examine the Prevalence of Tuberculosis (T.B.) infection and raise awareness among the population regarding T.B. infection in the Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. Effective disease control and elimination require appropriate management, diagnosis, treatment, and public consciousness.